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Formic Acid

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Formic acid is a colourless, fuming liquid with a pungent acrid odor with the chemical formula HCOOH.

Formic acid is systematically named as methanoic acid. The common names for simple carboxylic acids come from the Latin or Greek names of their source. Formic acid, although not widely used as a solvent, is of interest as an example of a protic solvent with high acidity. Formic acid and its salts are corrosive and skin sensitizers. Sodium Formate is mildly irritating to the eyes. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called Formates. Industrially, formic acid is produced from methanol.

Formic acid is a colourless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, not unlike the related acetic acid. It is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, and is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons. In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules. Owing to its tendency to hydrogen-bond, gaseous formic acid does not obey the ideal gas law. Solid formic acid, which can exist in either of two polymorphs, consists of an effectively endless network of hydrogen-bonded formic acid molecules. Formic acid forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water (22.4%). Liquid formic acid tends to supercool.

Chemical Structure :
Chemical (IUPAC) Name : Formic Acid, Methanoic acid
Trade Name : Formic Acid
Chemical Formula : CH2O2
Synonyms : Carbonous acid, Formylic acid, Hydrogen carboxylic acid, Hydroxy (oxo) methane, Metacarbonoic acid, Oxocarbinic acid, Oxomethanol
Appearance : Colorless fuming liquid
Molar mass : 46.025 g•mol−1
Melting point : 8.4 °C (47.1 °F; 281.5 K)
Boiling point : 100.8 °C (213.4 °F; 373.9 K)
Density : 1.220 g/mL
CAS Registry Number : 64-18-6
EINECS Number : 200-579-1
HS Code : 29151100
Grade Standard : Industrial
Purity : 76%, 85%, 90%, 94%, 99%


Formic Acid 85% Min 90% Min 94% Min
Colour Index 20 max 10 max 10 max
Sulphate as SO4 0.001 % max 0.0005 % max 0.0005 % max
Chloride as Cl 0.002 % max 0.0005 % max 0.000 5 % max
Iron as Fe 0.0001 % max 0.0001 % max 0.0001 % max
Evaporation residue 0.006 % max 0.006 % max 0.006 % max
Formic Acid Packing
  • 25 kgs / 35 kgs / 250 kgs / 1200 kgs drum
  • 25 kg drum, 25 MT per 20’ FCL
  • 35 kg drum, 25.2 MT 20’ FCL
  • 250 kg drum, 20 MT per 20’ FCL
  • IBC drum, 24 MT per 20’ FCL
Formic Acid Uses & Application
  • Pharmaceutical

used for manufacturing trimethylxanthine, analgin, aminopyrine, metronidazole, mebendazole.

  • Pesticides

used for manufacturing triadimefon, tricyclazole, triazophos, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, dicofol

  • Chemical

used for manufacturing formic acid salts, formamide, dimethyl formamide, pentaerythritol, Neopentyl glycol

  • Leather & Tanning

tanning agent, deliming agent, neutralizing agent

  • Rubber

coagulating agent of natural rubber

  • Dyestuff
  • Others

Metals surface treating agent, animal feed additives

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